'Bread and a pennyworth of treacle': excess female mortality in England in the 1840s
The causes of female mortality in England in 1841 were analyzed using death rates for the ages 5-15, 15-30, and 30-60. The statistics showed that females had lower mortality rates in early childhood and in old age. For the ages 10 to 40, female mortality was 5% to 10% higher than male mortality. The study cites social and economic factors rooted in discrimination as causes of higher female mortality not related to maternal mortality. Women were denied equal access to food thereby making them susceptible to diseases. Women had fewer employment opportunities and those employed were expected to fulfill the physical demands of both motherhood and housework.
Publication Name: Cambridge Journal of Economics
Value-added taxation: a tax whose time has come?
Value-added taxation should be enforced in the nation to prevent the predicted 3.6 percent of GDP-$276 billion budget deficit in the fiscal year 1997. Health care reforms may increase the deficit by $20 billion, according to the congressional budget office. Tax increases are essential for any substantial progress.
Publication Name: Journal of Economic Perspectives
Taxation and Excess Burden: A Life Cycle Perspective
The impact of taxation is evaluated with consideration given to endogenous leisure and human capital decisions. The effect of behavioral parameters on the variance on lifetime income tax burden is examined. The welfare costs of taxation must consider human investment decisions.
Publication Name: International Economic Review
- Abstracts: The reeded edge and the Phillips curve: money neutrality, common knowledge, and subjective beliefs. The transition from barter to fiat money
- Abstracts: Deregulation and the labor market. Protection and social order. Complexity, organization, and Stuart Kauffman's 'The Origins of Order.'
- Abstracts: The theory of evolution and the evolution of theory: Veblen's methodology in contemporary perspective. Taxation and Kalecki's theory of the business cycle
- Abstracts: Bangladesh seeks more investment. Bangladesh - open for business
- Abstracts: Europe and the Maastricht challenge. What's right and wrong with World Bank involvement in Eastern Europe. Making Europe work - the struggle to cut the workweek