Decreased in vitro susceptibility to zidovudine of HIV isolates obtained from patients with AIDS
Currently, the only approved treatment for AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the fatal disease caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), is zidovudine (AZT). Prolonged treatment with AZT reduces morbidity and mortality among AIDS patients. Long-term treatment of many infectious diseases often causes the infectious agent to become resistant to the drug. HIV isolated from 10 patients before and after treatment with AZT was tested for resistance to the drug. In five of the patients, virus isolated following AZT treatment were less susceptible to AZT in test tube analysis. In four patients, the virus was not susceptible to AZT in laboratory measurements before or after treatment of the patients, while the last patient had variable results, unchanged by AZT treatment. Sensitivity to AZT of isolated virus did not correlate with the clinical status of the patients. Further studies using a larger group of people may indicate whether more significant effects accompany long term treatment of HIV infection with AZT. (Consumer Summary produced by Reliance Medical Information, Inc.)
Publication Name: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Outcome after treatment of high-risk papillary and non-Hurthle-cell follicular thyroid carcinoma
Thyroid gland removal and radioactive iodine therapy appear to be effective treatments for high-risk papillary and non-Hurthle-cell follicular thyroid carcinoma. Researchers compared the treatment outcomes of 385 thyroid cancer patients. Thyroidectomy was used in 71-83% of patients, which reduced the risk of death to 37% of the risk of death in those who did not have surgery. Radioiodine therapy was used in 79-85% of patients and was associated with greater survival and a substantial decrease in disease progression. External beam radiation did not improve survival or slow the progress of the disease.
Publication Name: Annals of Internal Medicine
Education on the rocks; substance misuse
Most nurses appear unaware that, following the recommendations of the UK Advisory Committee on Alcoholism, they have an obligation to identify cases of problem drinking and provide appropriate advice. Nurses are in an ideal position to do this but a survey of 168 nurses revealed that 85% were unsure of the advice to give to problem drinkers, while half did not know what the current suggested safe levels for alcohol consumption actually were. Nurses must be given training in alcohol-related problems and need to consider the possibility of excessive alcohol use in all the clients they see.
Publication Name: Nursing Times
- Abstracts: Considerations in the selection of end points for AIDS clinical trials. Medical Research Council AIDS directed program: program plan and research opportunities
- Abstracts: Racial differences in susceptibility to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. part 2 Mortality rates and risk factors for coronary disease in black as compared with white men and women
- Abstracts: Aphthous ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
- Abstracts: Differences in PCR reactivity between HIV proviruses from individuals in Ethiopia and Sweden. Monte Carlo simulation of HIV infection in an intravenous drug user community
- Abstracts: Lack of efficacy of Hydergine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Tetrahydroaminoacridine-lecithin combination treatment in patients with intermediate-stage Alzheimer's disease: results of a Canadian double-blind, crossover, multicenter study