How mothers keep their babies warm
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well infant. It is the primary cause of death between two weeks and the first year of life. Hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) is characterized by shock (inadequate blood flow) due to bleeding and brain disease. Studies suggest that SIDS and HSES may be associated with overheating of infants, that is, keeping infants too warm . However, the relation between overheating and the development of these two syndromes is difficult to study. The methods by which mothers keep their babies warm have been examined. The thermal environments (warmth of surrounding temperatures) of 649 sleeping babies, aged 8 to 26 weeks, were assessed during the day, night, summer, and winter. The room temperature, clothing, and night and day beddings were recorded. The room temperature at night was influenced by the outside temperature and duration of heating. Insulation (warmth provided by the sum of clothing and bedding) was influenced by outside temperature and the lowest room temperature; it varied widely at similar room temperatures. Insulation was highest at night during the winter when thick bedding was used and infants were swaddled. Fifty percent of infants threw off bedding at night and sweating occurred in 25 percent. Mothers who were young or from lower social classes tended to use more bedclothes for their infants and maintain warmer room temperatures. In addition, insulation of the infant was increased during infectious illness. The infants who were kept warmest did not seem to suffer any adverse effects, except sweating. It is not known whether increased body temperature and other factors, such as fever or slipping beneath the bedding, would put an infant at risk of more serious illness, such as SIDS and HSES. (Consumer Summary produced by Reliance Medical Information, Inc.)
Publication Name: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Quality of life of postmenopausal women on a regimen of transdermal estradiol therapy: a double-blind placebo-controlled study
Estradiol appears to be effective in relieving symptoms associated with menopause and in improving quality of life. Of 223 postmenopausal women between the ages of 45 and 65, 112 were given an estradiol skin patch and 111 were given a placebo as a skin patch. Psychological symptoms and physical symptoms like flushes and sweating improved with both placebo and estradiol. However estradiol was significantly more effective than placebo in improving sleep, well-being, vitality, sex life and self-control and in reducing feelings of social isolation and anxiety. Nine women who wore the placebo skin patch experienced breakthrough bleeding compared with 15 women who wore the estradiol skin patch. Five women who wore the placebo skin patch reported symptoms like bloating and skin irritation, and five women who wore the estradiol skin patch reported symptoms like abdominal pain and bloating.
Publication Name: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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