Immunogenicity of tetravalent rhesus rotavirus vaccine administered with buffer and oral polio vaccine
Infection with rotavirus (RV) causes vomiting and severe diarrhea in infants and children, and can lead to severe dehydration, or the excessive loss of body fluids. A tetravalent rhesus rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV) was developed to protect against rotavirus infection in children, and tested on almost 1,000 infants at 22 medical centers in the United States. The infants received three doses of the RRV-TV by mouth. The RV vaccine is usually given with large amounts of buffer (a substance that maintains the appropriate levels of hydrogen ions in a solution). The buffer was also shown to promote a good immune response to the vaccine. In previous studies, researchers maintained a two-week period between administration of the RRV-TV and immunization with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). The difficulties of giving large doses of buffer and the necessity of extra visits to the doctor for the OPV and RV vaccines could be resolved if the RV vaccine could be given with lower doses of buffer and combined with the OPV vaccine. Similar to OPV, the RV vaccine should also be given before two to three months of age. The effect of reducing the dose of buffer on the ability of RRV-TV to promote an immune response was assessed. In addition, the effects of RRV-TV on the immune response to the OPV vaccine was examined. This study was conducted between January and November 1989 and involved 174 infants, aged 6 to 16 weeks. The ability of RRV-TV to promote an immune response was determined by the production of antibody, or immune protein, against RV. The levels of antibody to RV were similar in children receiving RRV-TV prepared in small and large doses of buffer, but were much lower in children who received RRV-TV without buffer. The RRV-TV did not appear to interfere with the immune response to OPV. (Consumer Summary produced by Reliance Medical Information, Inc.)
Publication Name: American Journal of Diseases of Children
Patient appointment failures in pediatric resident continuity clinics
Appointment failure rates are high in public pediatric clinics. This has negative connotations for both continuity of care and pediatric resident training. Questionnaires were sent to 200 pediatric resident outpatient clinics of which 80% responded. The mean rate of failure to keep appointments was 31%, and reported no-show rates ranged from 3% to 80%. This compares with average no-show rates of 15% in private practices. Forty-seven percent of clinics sent reminder cards, and these appeared to be associated with lower no-show rates. Higher percentages of patients receiving Medicaid were associated with higher appointment failure rates.
Publication Name: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
Co-occurrence of AIDS and tuberculosis: results of a database "match" and investigation
As many as 17% of patients with tuberculosis in Philadelphia, PA, may be infected with HIV. Researchers present data from a comparison of patient information databases for both diseases.
Publication Name: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
- Abstracts: The immunogenicity of the Oka/Merck varicella vaccine in relation to infectious varicella-zoster virus and relative viral antigen content
- Abstracts: A field study of the safety and efficacy of two candidate rotavirus vaccines in a Native American population. Development of dengue and Japanese encephalitis vaccines
- Abstracts: Osteopenia in the men of a Veterans Administration nursing home. Plasma amino acid concentrations in healthy elderly men and women
- Abstracts: Diagnosing salivary stones. Diagnosing bulimia nervosa with parotid gland swelling. Bulimia nervosa: its effect on salivary chemistry
- Abstracts: Management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. An aggrecanase and osteoarthritis. Techniques to Improve Physicians' Use of Diagnostic Tests: A New Conceptual Framework