Low expression of beta-1, alpha-2 and alpha-3 subunits of VLA integrins in malignant mammary tumors
Integrins are proteins that promote the adhesion of cells to other cells and to other structures of the tissues in the body. One group of integrins are known as the very late antigens (VLA). These molecules form receptors for other molecules involved in structural aspects of tissue. These integrins are thought to be involved in the control of growth and maturation into more differentiated forms of cells. It has been shown that VLAs lose their ability to function in adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum. A correlation has been seen with decreased levels of VLAs and increased malignancy. In contrast, high levels of VLAs have been correlated with the slow growth and progression of basal cell carcinomas of the skin. The expression of VLAs was studied in noncancerous and 43 cancerous breast tumors, including malignant (invasive) and noninvasive cancers. In normal breast tissue and in noninvasive lobular carcinomas, the VLAs were expressed. In the majority of the malignant lobular carcinomas, the VLAs were expressed at low levels or not at all. Low levels of the expression of VLAs were also seen in poorly differentiated ductal breast carcinomas, which is the invasive form of this cancer, compared with the more differentiated ductal carcinomas, which are not invasive. Therefore, lower levels of the VLAs tend to occur in invasive breast cancer. This reduced level is also associated with undifferentiated forms of cells and cancer. (Consumer Summary produced by Reliance Medical Information, Inc.)
Publication Name: Journal of Pathology
Surgery for invasive gynecologic cancer in the elderly female population
Geriatric patients with invasive cancers are usually not considered for radical surgery. These patients are usually treated with palliative treatments (treatments used to relieve but not cure the cancer) and radiation. Some elderly patients have undergone surgery and have tolerated it well. Seventy-two elderly female patients with invasive gynecologic cancers were studied to examine the feasibility and morbidity of radical surgery in patients over the age of 70 years compared with a group of 154 younger patients. In the elderly group, there were 42 percent with epithelial ovarian cancer, 31 percent with endometrial, 15 percent with vulvar cancer, and 12 percent with cervical. Surgery was avoided in only 10 percent of the elderly patients because of their general medical conditions. Radical surgery was performed in 65 elderly patients. There was an operative mortality of 1.5 percent in the elderly group, while no postoperative deaths occurred in the younger group. Radical surgery was well tolerated overall by the elderly patients. Cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy are not without risks. Biologic age and general fitness is more important than chronological age. Elderly patients with gynecologic cancer can undergo radical surgery and age alone should not be considered a contraindication. (Consumer Summary produced by Reliance Medical Information, Inc.)
Publication Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Cowden disease in a young girl: gynecologic and immunologic overview in a case and in the literature
Cowden disease, which may be caused by immunological abnormalities, is an inherited disorder characterized by the overgrowth of mature cells in particular areas. The disease causes sores, especially in the skin, mouth, breast, thyroid, colon and in the intestines. Patients with Cowden disease are at higher risk for cancer, particularly breast cancer. One patient with the disease, a young girl, underwent a gynecological exam and a test of her immunological system. Laboratory tests did not detect any tumors, but immunological abnormalities were found. The gynecological manifestations of Cowden disease were reviewed after the authors found abnormal overgrowths in the young girl's reproductive organs, such as the endometrium; a rare circumstance, especially in such a young patient. Since Cowden disease increases the risk of cancer, such as breast cancer, early diagnosis is essential for effective treatment.
Publication Name: Obstetrics and Gynecology
- Abstracts: The relation between symptoms, viral load and viral load set point in primary HIV infection. In vivo fluctuation of HTLV-I and HTLV-II proviral load in patients receiving antiretroviral drugs
- Abstracts: Epidemiological and laboratory studies of power frequency electric and magnetic fields. How Do Observational Studies Expand the Evidence Base for Therapy?
- Abstracts: Food intake, serum lipids and amino acids of school children in agricultural communities in Japan. Basal metabolic rate and energy costs at rest and during exercise in rural- and urban-dwelling Papua New Guinea Highlanders
- Abstracts: New approaches to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus infection after transplantation. Ranitidine for prevention of postoperative suppression of delayed hypersensitivity
- Abstracts: Long-term outcome of reversal of small intestinal bypass operations