Management of threadworm infestation during pregnancy
Threadworms, also known as pinworms, are parasitic worms that inhabit the intestines and rectum of their hosts. Threadworm infestation (enterobiasis) occurs worldwide and is not considered a serious health threat, but it does cause the individual unpleasant irritation, pain and, possibly, embarrassment. Threadworm infestation during pregnancy is not unusual, and the difficult part of treatment, in the cases where improved hygiene is ineffective, is identifying a drug that does not threaten the health of the fetus. The effectiveness of four proven anthelmintic drugs (helminth is another name for worm) is reviewed, but details about the effectiveness during pregnancy are limited. The four drugs are piperazine, mebendazole, pyrantel, and thiabendazole. Mebendazole and pyrantel, unlike piperazine and thiabendazole, are not readily absorbed in the intestine, which may protect the fetus, but studies using mebendazole produced deformities in animal offspring and the drug has been ruled out for use during human pregnancy. Insufficient information about pyrantel in pregnancy suggests that caution should be exercised in its use. Thiabendazole is effective during the later stages of pregnancy, but there are signs that it may be toxic to animal fetuses. Piperazine has been available for a long time without incidence of toxicity to the fetus. The current recommendation for the treatment of threadworm infestation during pregnancy is that piperazine be used after the first trimester, if it is determined that attempts to improve personal hygiene (such as vigorous hand washing after defecation and frequent changes of clothes) have failed to eradicate the threadworms. (Consumer Summary produced by Reliance Medical Information, Inc.)
Publication Name: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Threadworm is a small intestinal worm parasite passed from human to human. The symptoms include intense itching around the anus after large numbers of eggs are laid. Mebendazole for adults and children over two years and Piperazine for infants from the age of over three months are recommended and various hygienic measures are suggested for its prevention.
Publication Name: Nursing Times
Diazepam is recommended for palliative care in chronic severe spasticity. Drowsiness, increased aggression, amnesia and muscle weakness are some of its side-effects. Various nursing considerations while prescribing this drug and caution for the patients are suggested.
Publication Name: Nursing Times
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