Penicillins and staphylococci: a historical interaction
The history of penicillin as treatment for staphylococcus aureus infections is reviewed. The discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming in 1928 ushered in antibiotic treatment of pyogenic infections. However, its widespread use resulted to the development of resistant strains of staphylococci thus structural modifications were done. Later on, the genetic, enzymatic factors responsible for bacterial resistance were identified and clinical research developed semisynthetic penicillins and penicillinase inhibitors. Penicillin research serves as the model for pathological and pharmacological studies.
Publication Name: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Pharmacia & Upjohn has introduced the antibiotic linezolid, which is sold under the trade name Zyvox. It belongs to a new class of antibiotics called oxazolidinones, and is meant to be used to treat infections caused by bacteria that have become resistant to other antibiotics. It is effective against staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, particularly strains that have become resistant to vancomycin and methicillin.
Publication Name: Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
New FDA Approvals
Mircette, an oral contraceptive from Organon that uses a shortened hormone-free interval, has been approved by the FDA. The drugs approved by the FDA include tolterodine tablets for control of overactive bladder, risedronate sodium for Paget's disease, pravastatin for stroke prevention, lansoprazole for short-term treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and simvastatin for reduction of first stroke or TIA risk.
Publication Name: The Nurse Practitioner
- Abstracts: Penicillin-resistant pneumococci from pediatric patients in the Washington, DC, area. Pediatric Resident and Faculty Knowledge of the Denver II
- Abstracts: Nogo-A-specific antibody treatment enhances sprouting and functional recovery after cervical lesion in adult primates
- Abstracts: Acetylcysteine and nephrotoxic effects of radiographic contrast agents -- a new use for an old drug. Prevention of radiographic-contrast-agent-induced reductions in renal function by acetylcysteine
- Abstracts: Reducing the risk of breast cancer. Reducing the use of mechanical ventilation. "Westernizing" women's risks? Breast cancer in lower-income countries
- Abstracts: Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhea. Topical tacrolimus for treatment of atopic dermatitis. Alosetron (Lotronex) for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome