Perinatal HIV infection and the effect of zidovudine therapy on transmission in rural and urban counties
Health care workers in North Carolina appear to have reduced the rate of perinatal transmission of HIV by promptly identifying HIV-positive pregnant women and their babies and treating both with zidovudine. A total of 877 HIV-positive women gave birth to 881 babies in North Carolina between 1990 and 1994. Eighty-five percent were black and 56% lived in rural parts of the state or small metropolitan counties. By the last quarter of 1994, over 90% of HIV-exposed newborn infants were identified, up from 63% just one year before. Almost half were identified within one week of birth, 73% by 6 weeks and 91% by three months. Forty-one percent were born in rural counties. Six percent of the babies who were exposed to zidovudine before or after birth became infected compared to 19% of those never exposed to zidovudine. HIV transmission rates from mother to child decreased from 21% in 1993 to 8.5% in 1994.
Publication Name: JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association
The Epidemiology of Adolescent Homicide in North Carolina From 1990 to 1995
Teenage murder victims in North Carolina are most often shot by people they know. Researchers reviewed 419 teenage homicides from 1990 to 1995, and found that most victims were 15-18 years old, black, and male. Victims commonly lagged in their school performance and had a criminal record. Guns were used in 83% of the murders, and 23% were drug-related. In 77% of teenage murders, the victim knew the perpetrator. Efforts to reduce access to firearms and drugs, and intervention directed at teenage criminals and poor students, may reduce the rate of teenage homicide.
Publication Name: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
Heterosexually transmitted HIV infection among African Americans in North Carolina
Rates of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection among African Americans in the southeastern United States greatly exceed those for whites and African American women accounted for almost twice as many of these cases as African American men. Poverty is an underlying determinant of these behaviors and a contributor to infection risk even in people who do not have high-risk behaviors.
Publication Name: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)
- Abstracts: Hematologic effects of maternal antiretroviral therapy and transmission prophylaxis in HIV-1-exposed uninfected newborn infants
- Abstracts: Detection of acute HIV infections in an urban HIV counseling and testing population in the United States. Efficacy of cyto-chex blood preservative for delayed manual CD4 testing using Dynal T4 Quant CD4 test among HIV-infected persons in Zambia
- Abstracts: Neutrophil and monocyte beta(sub2)-integrin expression in maternal and fetal blood. The newborn screening educational gap: What prenatal care providers do compared with what is expected
- Abstracts: The influence of cryotherapy on reduction of swelling, pain and trismus after third-molar extraction. Intraorbital abscess
- Abstracts: Frequency and effect of adjuvant radiation therapy among women with stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma. Fluorouracil vs gemcitabine chemotherapy before and after fluorouracil-based chemoradiation following resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a randomized controlled trial