Discontinuation of Chemoprophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia in Patients with HIV Infection
Many HIV patients can stop taking drugs to prevent Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) if aggressive treatment of their HIV infection has raised their CD4 T cell counts. Researchers analyzed the rate of PCP in 491 HIV patients with CD4 T cell counts greater than 200. None of the 146 patients who had stopped taking PCP preventive drugs developed PCP. These patients had higher T cell counts and lower viral levels than patients who continued taking the drugs.
Publication Name: Annals of Internal Medicine
Possible effectiveness of clarithromycin and rifabutin for cryptosporidiosis chemoprophylaxis in HIV disease
Clarithromycin and rifabutin may be effective in preventing cryptosporidiosis in HIV patients. This infection with Cryptosporidium parvum affects 10% to 15% of HIV patients and can be fatal. Researchers collected data from 10 HIV clinics covering 1,019 HIV patients. Clarithromycin or rifabutin reduced the risk of cryptosporidiosis by 75% or more in these patients. The drug azithromycin had no effect on the incidence of cryptosporidiosis.
Publication Name: JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia incidence and chemoprophylaxis failure in ambulatory HIV-infected patients
Many HIV patients with advanced disease may develop Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) even though they are taking drugs to prevent this opportunistic infection. In a study of 2,842 HIV patients, 1,582 were given drugs to prevent PCP. A total of 153 new cases of PCP occurred in these patients, and 67% of the new infections occurred in patients receiving drugs to prevent PCP. Patients with CD4+ T cell counts below 50 who had a history of PCP were most likely to develop PCP.
Publication Name: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
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