The effects of polyunsaturated fat vs monounsaturated fat on plasma lipoproteins
An association has been observed between dietary fat and increased risk for coronary heart disease. In addition to recommendations for reducing fat in the diet, the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Guidelines maintain that consumption of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats should be carefully controlled. To assess the influence of the type of fat consumed, 19 men and 20 women were evaluated. None of the subjects had cardiovascular abnormalities or high blood pressure, and the total blood cholesterol levels of the groups were comparable. The subjects were put on a polyunsaturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks, followed by a 12-week diet rich in monounsaturated fat; the cholesterol and saturated fat contents in both diets remained the same. Measurements of blood lipid (fat) components were taken before and after each of the diets. After the diet of polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat, no significant differences were found in concentrations of (the more harmful) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol or mass, or in (the more beneficial) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol or mass. An increase of 50 percent of HDL-2 concentration was associated with the polyunsaturated fat diet; decreases in HDL-3 concentration also accompanied this diet. The results of this study offer no support for the benefits of a predominantly monounsaturated fat diet, rather than a predominantly polyunsaturated fat diet. No benefits of the monounsaturated fat diet were noted with regard to HDL blood concentration levels, compared with the polyunsaturated fat diet. (Consumer Summary produced by Reliance Medical Information, Inc.)
Publication Name: JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association
Smoking in older women: is being female a 'risk factor' for continued cigarette use?
Cigarette smoking is the most readily preventable cause of death in the United States. Smoking increases the risk of developing various life-threatening diseases, such as respiratory diseases, cancer, heart disease, and stroke. Although the prevalence of smoking has decreased over the past 20 years, the reduction in smoking prevalence has been less impressive among women than among men. More younger women have started smoking, and the ability of older women to quit smoking has varied. Recent findings from national studies show that more women between the ages of 50 and 60 years are current rather than former smokers. By comparison, more men within the same age group are former rather than current smokers. The gender differences in ability to quit smoking were assessed in 1,876 men and women aged 50 to 65 years who were residents of a northern California community. In this area where residents were generally well-educated, 25.6 percent of women and 18.6 percent of men were current smokers. A greater percentage of men than women were former smokers. The educational level and marital status appeared to be more important than gender in influencing cigarette use and ability to quit smoking. However, the educational level and marital status designations that were linked with being an older woman were associated with continued smoking in this age group. Provision of relevant information and support from health professionals may help this segment of the population to quit smoking. (Consumer Summary produced by Reliance Medical Information, Inc.)
Publication Name: Archives of Internal Medicine
Diet vs exercise in weight maintenance: the effects of minimal intervention strategies on long-term outcomes in men
Obesity can cause a wide variety of health problems. Although there are many programs which focus on sustaining weight losses, long-term maintenance is difficult to accomplish. To determine the problems with long-term weight-loss intervention strategies, such as diet by overall energy restriction and exercise, moderately overweight middle-aged men were studied. The men were divided into two groups, 44 following a diet regimen and 46 on an aerobic exercise program. The men following the exercise plan were able to maintain weight loss better than the men on the diet restriction plan. The men following dietary intervention alone gained similar amounts of weight during the second year of the study. It is thought that the exercise regimen was less complicated to follow and the plan was easier to communicate using minimal intervention strategies such as phone and mail contact by qualified medical personnel. Although both strategies, dietary management and regular exercise, were easily applied methods, exercise seems to provide greater long-term weight stability.
Publication Name: Archives of Internal Medicine
- Abstracts: Effects of cyclosporine therapy on plasma lipoprotein levels. The prevalence of high blood cholesterol levels among adults in the United States
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- Abstracts: Effects of hypertension on pregnancy monitoring and results. Maternal-fetal outcomes in prolonged pregnancy
- Abstracts: Some new twists to one of the most common procedures in US general surgery. Lipid particles may help solve puzzle regarding genesis of some cardiovascular diseases