The heat shock response of type 1 and type 4 gonococci
When an organism is heated, a change occurs in the protein synthesis within that organism. Heat will also cause an increase in the number of specialized proteins produced in response, known as heat shock proteins (HSP). The heat shock response (HSR) is defined as an elevation of HSP in response to higher temperatures. This occurs in all organisms. The heat shock response was studied in two types of gonorrhea organisms, type 1 and type 4. When the temperature was increased from 37 degrees centigrade to 43 degrees centigrade, 19 heat shock proteins were found in type 1 and 37 such proteins in type 4 gonococci, the organisms responsible for gonorrhea. One protein occurred in type 1 gonococci alone, while 19 of these proteins occurred in both types, and another 19 in type 4. Most of the HSP were found in the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell, the area of the cell outside the nucleus.
Publication Name: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Diabetes experts at a hospital in Bournemouth, England, developed a programme, led by nurses, to support and inform patients who have a new diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. The three-month programme includes private consultations and education groups led by a range of professionals. The approach helps allay fears, avoid confusion, and promote effective management of the condition. It is also a cost-effective method of achieving these aims.
Publication Name: Nursing Times
Arsenic: health effects, mechanisms of actions, and research issues
A meeting about the health effects of arsenic determined several needs for research. These include arsenic metabolism and cellular interaction, how arsenic bioaccumulates and affects genetic material, interactions with other metals, and developing animal models and cell systems to study this metal.
Publication Name: Environmental Health Perspectives
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