US location of the adductor canal hiatus: morphologic study
The femoral artery and vein are the main vessels of the thigh and leg. These structures run through the thigh in a muscular compartment which is known as the adductor canal or the Hunter canal. The vessels leave the front of the thigh to enter the small popliteal cavity (the concavity at the back of the knee joint) by passing through a muscular hole called the adductor canal hiatus. This is a site where many problems of the vascular system occur. Seventy percent of all patients who have inadequate blood supply to their legs (suffering from intermittent claudication) have a reduction of the bore of vessels in this area. While 'local factors' have been hypothesized, an exact pathophysiologic mechanism has never been shown. A study was conducted with cadavers and volunteers. While the examination of cadavers by ultrasound has been largely unsuccessful, ultrasound studies on the normal volunteers in this study have shown that the method makes it possible to visualize the area of the adductor canal hiatus. Now that the ability of ultrasound to view the area has been proven, further studies now in progress will concentrate on the correlation between constriction of the vessels (e.g., as a result of atherosclerosis) and late vessel disease.
Publication Name: Radiology
Morphologic and staining characteristics of a cyanobacterium-like organism associated with diarrhea
Three outbreaks of diarrhea in Southeast Asia and the United States within the past two years have been associated with the detection of a round microorganism that resembles cyanobacterium. The diarrheal disease is characterized by symptoms of anorexia, or loss of appetite, fatigue, and muscle pain. Infected persons experience periodic diarrhea for two to three weeks and intense fatigue throughout the course of the illness, which affected more than 100 persons in Southeast Asia and the United States. The cyanobacterium-like microbes measure 10 microns in diameter and appear as cysts, or sac-like structures, that contain granules. The microbes also contain structures within their cells that are similar to the photosynthetic thalkaloids of Cyanobacteria. These structures are involved in photosynthesis, the production of carbohydrates using carbon dioxide, water, and light energy in the presence of special pigments. The physical and staining features of the cyanobacterium-like body isolated from the feces of patients with the diarrheal disease were assessed. The organism appears to go through a cycle of different stages, which may be resting or infective. (Consumer Summary produced by Reliance Medical Information, Inc.)
Publication Name: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Morphologic demonstration of adrenergic influences on the glomerulus
Stimulation of the kidneys by the nerves going to them which cause the release of hormones makes it harder for blood to flow through and be filtered efficiently by the kidneys. The study examined how this affects the shape of the capillaries (tiny blood vessels) of the glomeruli (cluster of nerves and blood vessels which filter blood in the kidney). The glomeruli in kidneys whose nerves were stimulated became narrower as a whole. Further tests revealed that individual cells also narrowed, but widened again when hormone exposure ended. Thus the cells of the glomeruli are contracting when the efficiency of filtration declines. The nerves may work by changing the configuration of the cells that anchor the capillary network of the glomeruli, altering the number of capillary channels available for filtration as well as the volume of the glomeruli cells.
Publication Name: American Journal of Pathology
- Abstracts: Concentrations of tocopherols and carotenoids in maternal and cord blood plasma. Plasma kinetics in man of epicatechin from black chocolate
- Abstracts: Countering the concerns: how to reinforce dental practice safety. Dental safety needles' effectiveness: results of a one-year evaluation
- Abstracts: Treatment of alcoholism. Medical disorders of alcoholism. The pharmacological treatment of depression
- Abstracts: Factors predicting failure of medical therapy for gastric ulcers. Gastric emptying and bezoars
- Abstracts: Screening for gastrointestinal cancer: an epidemiological review. Stress effects on gastrointestinal transit in the rat