# Huygens and the computer -- a powerful alliance in numerical electromagnetics

Article Abstract:

Digital computers are able to utilize the full power of the Huygens' theory of light propagation, which now finds expression in numerical form under the name Transmission Line Matrix Modeling (TLM). Optical phenomena is explained through Huygens' theory, as well as its serving as the basis for modern wave physics and computational electromagnetics studies. TLM as a method of analysis is limited only by the amount of memory storage available in a computer, since the complexity of the structure and the nonuniformity of fields set up in it determines memory requirements. TLM is similar to finite element and finite difference methods, but a symmetrical condensed node disperses better than a distributed node with only a slightly higher numerical expenditure. TLM's strongest use is in evaluating highly complex geometry since the TLM network incorporates all the propagation space properties and field interaction with boundaries and materials.

Publication Name: Proceedings of the IEEE

Subject: Electronics

ISSN: 0018-9219

Year: 1991

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# From the electromagnetic pulse to high-power electromagnetics

Article Abstract:

Since the first atomic bomb was exploded, researchers have known that an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) generated by a high-altitude nuclear explosion can damage communications and other electronic equipment across an entire continent. Later research indicated that EMP is not restricted to nuclear explosions. High-power electromagnetics (HPE) refers to the entire research field, which includes EMPs generated by lightning. Research is driven by the vulnerability of electronic equipment to HPE environments. The basic concept calls for an electromagnetic topology involving closed surfaces, thus minimizing possible penetrations. It is hoped that a set of HPE common rational specifications will be developed over time. Technical details of HPE are discussed.

Publication Name: Proceedings of the IEEE

Subject: Electronics

ISSN: 0018-9219

Year: 1992

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# Low-frequency computational electromagnetics for antenna analysis

Article Abstract:

Computational techniques for modeling antennas, and in particular their low frequency characteristics, are discussed. The computational techniques described use Maxwell's equations as a starting point. The mathematical background used in solving low-frequency antenna problems is explored; also discussed are extensions for modeling perfectly conducting objects in free space. Some of the computational issues related to the accuracy of modeling also appear, along with efficiency and utility discussions. Finally, a variety of computational examples depicting certain aspects of modeling and currently available technology are provided.

Publication Name: Proceedings of the IEEE

Subject: Electronics

ISSN: 0018-9219

Year: 1992

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