Edward Jenner (1749-1823): the history and effects of smallpox, inoculation, and vaccination
Smallpox, a disfiguring and often deadly disease, was known and feared from ancient times. One method used to combat smallpox was inoculation, introducing a mild form of the disease into a healthy person to produce immunity. Experiments with inoculation began in England and colonial America in the 18th century. However, inoculation could still result in a severe or even fatal case of smallpox. Edward Jenner (1749-1823) was an English doctor who observed that cowpox seemed to confer immunity to smallpox without the risks of inoculation. His use of vaccination to prevent smallpox was not well received at first, but as it proved effective it became widely accepted. An international program for worldwide smallpox vaccination was begun in 1967, and by 1980 smallpox was declared to be completely eradicated.
Publication Name: American Journal of Diseases of Children
Haemophilus inflenzae type b
Updated guidelines have been presented about haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccinations and treatment for active infections. Major medical organizations have recommended vaccinating infants starting at two months of age using one of four approved Hib vaccines. Booster schedules vary by the type of vaccine and the age the vaccine was first given. Infected patients, incompletely vaccinated family members, and persons in close and extended contact with the infected patient should be treated with rifampin.
Publication Name: The Nurse Practitioner
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